Arbeitsblatt: Festivals around the World


Authentic Texts, Festivals around the world - Starters, Pre-Intermediate, Intermediate, Advanced
Lesen / Literatur
7. Schuljahr
73 Seiten




Sarah Meienberger
Land: Schweiz
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Intermediate April Fools Day What would you say if someone told you that the world was changing to metric time? That instead of 60 minutes in every 5 hour, there would be 100? This is exactly what happened on April 1, 1975 when an Australian news program played an April Fools Day joke on its viewers. This type of joke is called hoax. The people who pull the hoax are trying to fool large amount of people. few people always fall for well-planned hoax. 10 Some people never see joke coming. People who believe anything are gullible. Part of the April Fools Day tradition is for the prankster to yell April fool! after person has fallen for joke. April Fools Day, also known as All Fools Day, is always on 15 April 1. It is observed throughout the Western world and in many other countries as well. Traditionally, all practical jokes are played out in the morning before noon. There is no confirmed origin of April Fools Day, though it has been in practice for hundreds of years. The scope of April Fools Day has 20 changed dramatically since the 1700s. Even until recently, April Fools Day was limited to practical jokes and fools errands between family members, friends, and colleagues. For example, students would tell each other their shoelaces were untied or their zippers were undone. Or husband would place salt in the 25 sugar bowl before his wife woke up for her coffee. These days, pranksters use various methods to fool the masses. Jokes and hoaxes come in the form of email, tweets, Facebook updates, product launches, and YouTube videos. The most popular April Fools Day hoaxes in history are 30 legendary. These types of stunts are often pulled off because they are organized by well-trusted media sources. The BBC has pulled few such tricks on its readers and listeners. The Swiss Spaghetti Harvest hoax is one of the most well-known. In 1957, the BBC featured program about spaghetti crop in 35 Switzerland that was thriving because the spaghetti weevil (a weevil is type of insect) had died off during mild winter. When viewers contacted the BBC to ask how to grow their own spaghetti tree, they were advised to place sprig of spaghetti in tin of tomato sauce and hope for the best. In 1980, the 40 BBC convinced some people that Big Ben would be changed to digital time. more recent April Fools Day hoax by the BBC featured flying penguins who migrated to the rainforests of South America. Some companies are famous for April Fools Day pranks. Google 45 typically tries to fool the world on April 1 each year. They often use play on words to make gullible people seem even more like fools. In 2000, Google announced search technology that could read users mind. In 2006, they announced the new launch of Google Romance. Their slogan was: Dating is 50 search problem. In 2007, Google announced Gmail Paper, free webmail service for turning emails into paper to send via the postal service. Google Australia pulled another product prank in 2008 when it featured Day technology. This fake product allowed users to search for Internet content before it 55 was created. Some people are known for pulling pranks on other days besides April Fools Day. Ashton Kutcher is one of the most well- known celebrity pranksters in America. He popularized the term punked when he produced and starred in MTVs hidden 60 camera show. Kutchers victims are famous people such as Hollywood actors and singers. On the other hand, talk show host Jay Leno is well known for humiliating everyday people. His specialty is Jaywalking in which he stands on street corners and interviews passers-by about simple trivia. 65 Laughing at someone elses expense comes naturally to humans. April 1 is one of those days that we can also laugh at ourselves. However, some jokes go too far. April Fools Day jokes that are in bad taste can do more than make people laugh. They can also become very dangerous and hurt peoples 70 feelings. One town in America announced in 2008 that there would be new bye-law law in which all April Fools Day jokes and pranks would be banned. Extra staff members were hired at the local newspaper to prevent April Fools Day jokes from being printed. The newspaper even bought extra scissors to cut 75 out any jokes that got through. April fool! Intermediate Australia Day Australia Day is an annual public holiday that takes place in Australia on January 26th. The date marks the arrival of Captain 80 Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet. The fleet of 11 British ships arrived at Port Jackson (now Sydney) in 1788 to claim the land for Britain and establish penal colony. The anniversary of the fleets arrival was celebrated early on by some of the colonists. The first large celebration took place on 85 the 30th anniversary in 1818. At this time, Australia Day was known as Foundation Day or First Landing Day. formal dinner and ball were held at Governor Macquaries home. The governor also ordered 30-gun salute. The name Australia was officially adopted in 1824. Previously, 90 the west was known as New Holland or Terra Australis (southern land), and the east was called New South Wales. There is little consensus about how the country got its new name. One theory credits European navigator who wrote the word Australia on map after circumnavigating the continent. 95 Foundation Day was celebrated under various names, including Anniversary Day, for over 100 years before Australia Day became public holiday in 1946. From 1946–1995, the holiday was observed on the Monday closest to January 26th, allowing Australians to enjoy long weekend. Today, the public 100 holiday is on January 26th regardless of the day it falls on. Schools and government offices are closed. The Australian of the Year Awards has been an ongoing Australia Day tradition since 1960. Recipients are citizens who a) demonstrate excellence in their field, b) make significant 105 contribution to their community and nation, and c) act as role model for Australians. People across Australia look forward to Canberras annual ceremony celebrating exceptional Australians on Australia Day. The Australian flag is prevalent throughout the world on 110 Australia Day. It consists of blue field with red and white Union Jack in the top left corner. Beneath the Union Jack is the seven-point Commonwealth Star. It has six stars that represent the states, and one for the territories. On the right- hand side are the five stars of the Southern Cross constellation. This is 115 group of stars that is highly visible from the southern hemisphere. Australias flag colours (red, white, and blue) or natural colours (green and gold) are often worn on Australia Day. You will also see people sporting the official flower, the Golden Wattle, or other unofficial symbols, such as the koala or 120 kangaroo. To celebrate Australia Day, people often have BBQs with family members and friends. Many Aussies go to the beach or park for picnic and game of cricket. Some people attend official events, such as parades and concerts. In Sydney, Aussies enjoy 125 the worlds oldest sailing regatta (since 1837), followed by the Sydney Harbour fireworks. Not everyone in Australia celebrates Australia Day. For some Australians, January 26th is day of mourning. In fact, aboriginals call it Invasion Day. They get together on this day to 130 mourn ancestors who lost their land and rights. Some aboriginal Australians have changed the name to Survival Day. They use the day to promote their culture and celebrate the fact that their spirit is still alive. Many Australians agree that the date of the white mans arrival may not be the best date to celebrate 135 the nation. Intermediate Black History Month Black History Month is an observance formally known as Black 140 History Week. It was set in motion by Carter G. Woodson in 1926. Woodson was an African American professor and scholar who felt that African American history was being forgotten in schools. In 1976, Black History Week became Black History Month. Throughout the month of February, in both the US and 145 Canada, students learn about notable African American figures. They also study black American history, culture, and traditions. One of the most talked-about periods in black American history is the colonial period. The first African slaves arrived in North America in the 16th century. They settled with their 150 slaveholders in British colonies throughout the US and later up through Canada. The slave population grew slowly at first. During the 17th and 18th centuries, America relied heavily on slave labor to build its growing economy. Slaves did everything from sewing and cleaning to mining, driving carriages, and 155 building roads. In Canada, slaves were mainly used as domestic servants and farmhands. Due to the harsh winters, it was more difficult to keep slaves year-round in northern regions. Slavery was legal in North America until the mid-1800s. The abolition movement began gaining popularity in the northern 160 regions around 1790. Upper Canada (now Ontario) became safe haven for southern slaves after the 1793 Abolition Act. Thousands of slaves used system called the Underground Railway to escape to the northern states and Canada. This was secret route of safehouses that slaves used to find freedom. 165 Slavery was abolished across the British Empire by 1833. The abolition of slavery did not mean the end of discrimination, however. Equality is something African Americans still struggle for today. New languages, music, and recipes were born out of slavery. 170 Slaves who had different African languages were often placed together. This required them to come up with their own mixed languages such as Creole. Uneducated African Americans popularized oral storytelling. Music forms such as jazz, blues, and swing were also popularized by African Americans. Later 175 came the hip-hop genre. African American cuisine, sometimes called soul food, is served at Black History Month gatherings. Like the stories and fables, African American recipes were passed on orally. Slaves living on plantations made use of local crops such as sweet potatoes and okra. They also ate discarded 180 cuts of meat such as pigs feet. Even after regaining freedom, many African Americans continued to use these ingredients. Not everyone agreed with Woodsons vision back in 1926. Today, Black History Month still has its critics. Some historians and scholars feel that it is wrong to dedicate an entire month to 185 one race and culture. They dont agree with separating African American studies from general American history. Others feel that this observance forces new generations to take on decades of guilt. Like other holidays and observances, Black History Month has also become commercialized. 190 Intermediate Calgary Stampede One of the most anticipated festivals in Canada each year is the Calgary Stampede. The Stampede celebrates the heritage of western pioneers and cowboys. It attracts top rodeo competitors from around the world. Over 195 one million people attend the ten-day Calgary Stampede every July. In 1912, American Wild West promoter Guy Weadick visited Alberta where he met livestock agent named H. C. McMullen. Weadick saw lot of potential in Calgary because the people there seemed excited about their future. The two men discussed the idea of holding grand rodeo in 200 Calgary to showcase the talents of the traditional cowboy. Weadick pitched his idea to four wealthy businessmen. The Big Four knew the golden age of the cowboy was coming to an end. They agreed to fund the Stampede if Weadick promised to make it the greatest show of its kind. The first Calgary Stampede took place September 2–7, 1912. The 205 Stampede became an official annual event when the rodeo merged with Calgarys Exhibition in 1923. Attendees began wearing Wild West costumes, and local businesses and leaders joined in on the fun. When Weadick introduced chuck wagon races, the Stampede began to earn revenue. People lost interest during the Great Depression, but by the 210 1950s the Stampede was booming again. Expansions were made to the venue to meet the demands of the crowds. Each year the stampede kicks off with large parade. In 2011, Prince William and Duchess Kate attended the parade along with 425,000 spectators. The most important event that follows is the rodeo. Pay-outs to 215 winners at the Calgary Stampede are the highest in the world. Cowboys and girls compete in variety of events, including bull riding, steer riding, and tie-down roping. Other highlights include midway, market, pancake breakfasts, and the Indian Village. Any time animals are used for human entertainment, animal rights groups 220 get involved. Each year, activists picket outside the Exhibition grounds in Calgary. Many oppose chuck wagon racing. In 1986, nine horses were killed in chuck wagon accidents at the Stampede. While organizers insist that the Stampede livestock is well cared for, rule changes are made regularly to keep the sports from being banned 225 Pre-Intermediate Canada Day Canada Day is on July 1 and is often considered Canadas birthday. It commemorates the federation of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, 230 and Quebec in 1867. This is when Canada became self-governing dominion. The British Parliament did not give up complete control over Canada until 1982. Prior to the Canada Act, Canada Day was known as Dominion Day. Today, Canada is made up of ten provinces and three territories. From 235 west to east, the provinces are British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island (PEI), and Nova Scotia. The territories are the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Due to the cold climate and rugged terrain up north, the majority of Canadians live within 160 kilometres of the US 240 border. As the 2010 Olympics showed, Canadians are as patriotic as their American neighbors. On Canada Day, friends and families get together to celebrate their personal freedoms. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that Canadians have the right to choose their own 245 religion and vote for their own leader. Canadians also have the freedom to express their own beliefs. On Canada Day, people wear red and white and wave the Canadian flag to celebrate these freedoms. Communities have BBQs and watch fireworks together. Canada is sung throughout the day. 250 Canada Day events take place across the country, both in small towns and in capital cities. The most noteworthy celebration takes place in Ottawa. Ottawa is the capital of Canada and the home of Parliament Hill. The prime minister and the governor general attend the annual event along with tens of thousands of Canadians. Canadas top talent entertains Canadians of all 255 ages. From folk and hip-hop music to comedy and dancing, the line-up is as diverse as the people. One of the highlights is when the Snowbirds fly over the city. The aerobatic flying team is well-known symbol of Canada. Throughout the years, historic moments have taken place on Canada Day. The St. Lawrence Seaway was flooded on Canada Day in 1958. The first 260 colour TV transmission was held on July 1, 1966. On Canada Day in 1980, Canada became the official national anthem. Prior to that, God Save the Queen was the official anthem. In 2011, Canadians were very excited to learn that newlyweds Prince William and Duchess Kate would make their first overseas trip to Ottawas Canada Day festival. Canada still 265 shares the British monarchy, though the role of the royal family is largely symbolic. Intermediate Chanukah 270 Chanukah, or the Festival of Lights, is special time of year for Jewish people around the world. Chanukah begins on the 25th day of the month of Kislev in the Jewish calendar. In the Western calendar, this holiday varies from year to year but usually occurs sometime between the end of November and the 275 end of December. The holiday of Chanukah celebrates military victory which occurred over 2,000 years ago in the land of Judea. At that time, Judea was controlled by Syrian-Greek king named Antiochus. Antiochus ordered all the Jewish people living in the 280 area to give up their customs and beliefs, their religion, their God, and their temples. He ordered them to worship only the Greek gods. Some of the Jewish people obeyed the kings orders, but others refused. One of the men who refused was named Judah Maccabee. 285 Judah, his four brothers, and number of other men soon formed an army to fight against the Syrians. They called themselves the Maccabees. The Maccabees and the Syrians fought for almost three years until the Maccabees finally defeated the Syrians. 290 After the Maccabees had defeated the Syrians in Jerusalem, the Maccabees wanted to reclaim their temple and rededicate it to the worship of their God. They began to clean the temple, wash the walls, and remove the Greek symbols and statues inside. When they finished restoring the temple, they looked for some 295 oil to light the lamp which is present in every Jewish house of worship. They found tiny jug of oil, but knew it was only enough to last for one night. Then miracle occurred. The oil burned not just for one night, but for eight nights. It lasted until new supply of oil could be brought to the temple. 300 From that time on, Jews have celebrated Chanukah in memory of their victory over the Syrians and the miracle of the oil. The Hebrew word Chanukah means dedication, reminder of the rededication of their temple so long ago. Nowadays, Jewish families celebrate Chanukah by lighting 305 candles in special candleholder called menorah. menorah holds nine candles. One candle is for each of the eight nights of Chanukah and one candle is used to light the others. On the first night of the celebration, one candle is lit. This continues each night until all the candles are lit. Special blessings are also 310 said each night before the candles are lit. Chanukah includes several other customs such as eating potato pancakes called latkes, playing game with spinning toy called dreidel, and giving coins called Chanukah gelt to children. Chanukah occurs close to the Christian holiday of 315 Christmas and has become time of gift giving, decorating the house, and entertaining families and friends. Intermediate Chinese New Year Chinese New Year is the biggest and most important holiday of 320 the year for Chinese people around the world. It is actually two celebrations in one. According to Chinese tradition, everyones birthday is celebrated on New Years Day. This is also the most important time of the year for families to get together. Chinese New Year does not have fixed date on the Western 325 calendar because it is based on the lunar calendar. It always falls between January 20 and February 21. Each year, the Chinese calendar is represented by one of twelve animals from the Chinese zodiac. The signs include animals such as the ox, the rabbit, the snake, and the horse. For example, 1998 was the 330 year of the Tiger. 2010 was also the year of the Tiger. The Chinese believe that people share the characteristics of the animal that represents the year of their birth. All of the animals are associated with different characteristics. Two people who are born in the year of the Rooster are thought to be similar. 335 There are many traditional activities associated with Chinese New Year, and many of these symbolize new life and new beginnings. Many are also related to the idea of good luck. Chinese people sweep and clean their houses before New Years Day and then put away their brooms so good fortune will not be 340 swept away. They always pay off their debts before New Years Day because it is bad luck to begin the new year if you owe money. People also buy new clothing and new shoes because they believe that bad luck will come to those who step on the ground in old shoes on New Years morning. It is also 345 important to settle old arguments. The colour red is seen everywhere on Chinese New Year because it represents fire, which can drive away bad luck, according to legend. Gold is also an important colour at this time. It represents wealth and good fortune. Families decorate 350 their homes with flowers and paper decorations. Exchanging gifts is an important tradition, and children always receive red envelopes containing lucky money. The traditional New Years greeting is kung hey fah choy, which means wish you prosperous New Year. 355 Food is very important part of the Chinese New Year celebrations. Families and friends get together for large feasts and many of the foods that are eaten have special meanings. Fish is eaten to ensure long life and good fortune. Red dates bring prosperity, lotus and melon seeds will bring many 360 children, and oranges symbolize wealth. Ancestors are remembered with offerings of food. The table is usually covered with red cloth and red candles, and often there are 12 courses to represent the 12 animals of the zodiac. The dragon and the lion are other popular symbols of Chinese 365 New Year. Many Chinese communities around the world celebrate with dragon and lion dances and parades through the streets with people dressed in brightly colored costumes. Of course, Chinese New Year celebration would not be complete without loud and colorful fireworks. 370 In many Chinese communities, the new year is celebrated as an official holiday for three or four days, but often the celebrations continue until the Festival of Lanterns, which is on the 15th day of Chinese New Year. Starters 375 Christmas Christmas is celebrated on December 25. It is one of the biggest celebrations of the year in many countries. Christmas is very important day for Christians because it commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ. 380 The Christmas season lasts for almost month. In many countries, streets, homes, and shops are filled with colourful Christmas lights and decorations. Shopping centres are very crowded as people buy gifts for their family and friends. The Christmas season is one of the busiest shopping seasons 385 around the world. Many Christmas customs come from pagan festivals long ago. Thousands of years ago, celebrations were often held around the time of the winter solstice. People were often afraid when the sun disappeared during the long, cold nights of winter. 390 When the days began to grow longer, they celebrated the return of the sun by making bonfires, serving large festive meals, and exchanging gifts. After Christ was born, many of these traditions were combined with the celebration of Christmas. 395 Santa Claus is probably the most recognized non-religious symbol of Christmas. He is jolly old man with long, white beard, big stomach, and red suit. Young children in Canada and the United States believe that Santa Claus lives in the North Pole where he makes toys. On Christmas Eve (December 24), 400 he travels through the sky on sled pulled by reindeer. He lands on the roof of peoples homes, enters through the chimney, and leaves gifts for the children. Christmas is also an important time to visit family. Families often get together and sing Christmas carols, decorate the 405 family Christmas tree, hang stockings by the fire, and exchange cards and gifts. Of course, food is also very important part of the Christmas celebration. Stuffed turkey with mashed potatoes is very traditional meal served at Christmas dinners. Have merry Christmas and happy New Year! 410 Intermediate Cinco de Mayo You do not have to be Mexican to celebrate Cinco de Mayo. In fact, more Americans celebrate this holiday than Mexicans. Do 415 you think of May 5 as Mexicos 4 of July? Its not! Mexicos Independence Day is actually on September 16. Cinco de Mayo celebrates the Mexican armys win over France at the Battle of Puebla in 1862. This was difficult win. France had much larger army than Mexico. President Juarez declared 420 May 5 national holiday to inspire his countrys army to keep fighting. France eventually returned to Mexico with much bigger army and occupied the area. The French army marched on to take over Mexico City. In 1862, the US was in its own civil war and was unable to help Mexico. After the French occupation 425 in Mexico, the civil war ended in the US. America was in better position to help Mexico regain its independence. In the state of Puebla, Cinco de Mayo is big deal, but it is not national holiday. In Mexico, businesses and schools remain open on the fifth of May. Internationally, Cinco de Mayo is 430 becoming more commercialized. Many Mexicans compare it to Irelands St. Patricks Day. Everyone wants an excuse to have Mexican night! Cinco de Mayo celebrations feature Mexican food, drinks, and dancing. Typical Mexican fare includes tacos, enchiladas, and 435 chili. Adult partiers wash down the spicy food with frozen margaritas and Mexican beer. Traditional Mexican food is not the same as Tex-Mex. For example, Mexicans dont add melted cheddar cheese to tacos! Mexican culture is colourful and upbeat. Therefore, people 440 outside of Mexico are attracted to it. The official colours of Cinco de Mayo are red, white, and green. These are the colours of Mexicos flag, which is held high on this important date. Children celebrate Cinco de Mayo by breaking open piñatas. hey wear blindfolds and take turns striking at papier-mâché 445 animals or Mexican-themed figures. Piñatas are hollow inside and are filled with treasures and candy. Did you know that the piñata tradition actually came from Italy? Many North American children have piñatas at their birthday parties. Cinco de Mayo celebrations also feature mariachi music. The 450 mariachi ensemble plays violins, trumpets, and various types of guitars including the high-pitched vihuela and the deep bass guitarron. Youll know mariachi band by the classic shout known as the grito Mexicano. The audience and the musicians may shout this part. Mariachi musicians dress in matching suits 455 with shiny buttons. They also wear traditional Mexican hats called sombreros. The Mexican Hat Relay is great game to play on Cinco de Mayo. Teams face off down long hallway. Each player must dance as fast as he can around sombrero before returning to his spot. This game is spin-off of the 460 Mexican Hat Dance, the traditional dance of Mexico. Intermediate Earth Day In the words of the founding father, Gaylord Nelson, the first Earth Day organized itself. In September of 1969, Senator Nelson proposed 465 nationwide environmental protest. Originally, he called the grassroots demonstration National Environment Teach-In. The Catchy term Earth Day was adopted by the media as well as members of his team, partly because it rhymed with birthday. One of Nelsons team members would be celebrating birthday on April 22, the same day as the scheduled 470 teach-in. This was simply coincidence. In fact, the date was chosen in order to maximize student participation. Mid-April is time when most students are in school and do not have exams, holidays, or other distractions. Nelson had high hopes for Earth Day. He hoped it would be as effective as the national anti-war protests about Vietnam that were taking 475 place on college campuses across the country in the 60s. Nelsons vision came true. On April 22, 1970, approximately 20 million Americans including thousands of students who left their college, high school and grade school classrooms took to the streets in peaceful protest. In his Time magazine article, Taking the Long View, Stewart Brand wrote 480 these famous words: It is no accident of history that the first Earth Day, in April 1970, came so soon after colour photographs of the whole earth from space were made by homesick astronauts on the Apollo 8 mission to the moon in December 1968. Suddenly humans had planet to tend to. The issue of the environment had not even been addressed by the 1968 485 presidential candidates, yet Senator Nelson was right in thinking that the large protest could reach the political agenda with the help of energetic students. In 1970, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established. Shortly after that the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Endangered Species Act were established. Canada and the US agreed 490 to clean up the Great Lakes. Automobile makers were forced to give in to the new EPA requirements as well. They began building cars equipped with catalytic converters that ran on unleaded gasoline. In 1972, the harmful pesticide DDT was banned. Many environmentalists believe this decision helped save the bald eagle from extinction in the US. 495 Despite the original success of the first Earth Day, the effect was not long lasting. Issues related to the Vietnam War and civil rights once again took centre stage in the media, and Earth Day wasnt officially resurrected until 1980. On the tenth anniversary of the first Earth Day, the turnout was about three million people. It would take another decade before Earth Day 500 truly became an annual event extending across the globe. In 1990, approximately 200 million people worldwide showed their support for the environmental movement. Several events were coordinated, including an international team of mountain climbers who cleaned up two tons of garbage left by previous trekkers on Mount Everest. 505 Inspired by this turnout, the UN held an Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and the environment was awarded the top spot on the world agenda. More than 100 leaders from all over the world joined together to address the most important environmental issue: climate change. 300page document was created that included Agenda 21, plan for achieving 510 sustainable development in the 21st century. five and ten-year review known as Rio5 and Rio10 were held in 1997 and 2002 to determine the progress of the first Earth Summit. One of the primary issues that came out of these follow-up summits was that the environment and poverty are closely linked. 515 Estimates suggest that up to 1 billion people celebrate Earth Day on April 22 in over 175 countries. While the day is meant to bring about change in how humans treat the environment, good intentions do not equal progress. Giant concerts held on Earth Day, like the one in Central Park in 1990, leave many eco-conscious groups shaking their heads about the 520 waste left behind. Like any other trend, Earth Day, and living green in general, seem to be more fashionable some years than others. After the 9/11 attacks, the environment once again took backseat while the media focused on war and terrorism. In 2006, Al Gores documentary, An Inconvenient Truth, 525 sparked yet another movement in environmental awareness, especially on the topic of climate change. Reusable bottles and bags quickly became the hottest items you could buy. Starters Easter 530 Easter is the greatest festival of the Christian church. According to Christian beliefs, this religious holiday commemorates the rebirth of Jesus Christ, the son of God. It is celebrated on the first weekend after the first full moon that follows March 21. It can occur as early as March 22 or as late as April 25. 535 Although Easter Sunday is the most important celebration of the Christian church, Good Friday is also very important day in the holy week of Easter. Good Friday marks the day that Christ was crucified, or nailed on cross, until he died. Because Christ was killed on cross, the cross has become the symbol of 540 Christianity. Easter Sunday commemorates the miracle of Christs rebirth, or resurrection, three days after his death. Christians all over the world celebrate Easter by attending church services, praying, and spending time with family and close friends. 545 Although Easter is celebrated as religious holiday, it also has non-religious side. The arrival of spring had been celebrated all over the world long before Easter became Christian holiday. In fact, Easter was originally pagan festival. The word Easter comes from the name Easter, the ancient Anglo-Saxon goddess 550 of dawn and fertility. In ancient times, spring festivals were held each year to honour Easter and to celebrate new life and the rebirth of nature. In many parts of the world, flowers and plants begin to reappear after the long winter and birds return to build their nests. Because the resurrection of Christ occurred in the 555 early spring, the two celebrations have become closely tied together. There are many symbols associated with the Easter season. Lambs, chicks, bunnies, and other baby animals symbolize the birth of new life. One of the most well-known symbols of Easter 560 and springtime is the egg, which also represents new life. In modern times, chocolate Easter eggs and bunnies have become very popular. Another common symbol has been the Easter bonnet, which is kind of hat. In past times, the Easter bonnet and other new clothes were worn to mark the end of the long, 565 cold winter and the beginning of the fresh, new spring. number of years ago, it was common to see families walking leisurely to and from church to show off their new clothes. The white lily, also symbol of rebirth, is the traditional Easter flower. In many cultures, pastries such as hot cross buns are 570 also an important part of Easter. In many countries, Easter parades are common. Some parades are religious, with people carrying heavy crosses over long distances. Other Easter parades are just for fun. They celebrate the coming of spring with colourful floats, costumes, Easter 575 bonnets, and of course, the Easter bunny. Intermediate Waitangi Day Waitangi Day is public holiday in New Zealand. It commemorates the 580 signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, New Zealands founding document. The treaty was signed between British representatives and Māori Chiefs on February 6, 1840. The signing took place at settlement called Waitangi in the Bay of Islands. The Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. These first 585 inhabitants were of Polynesian descent. They lived on the North and South Islands for several centuries before the arrival of European settlers. The Māori called the islands Aotearoa, which means Land of the Long White Cloud. In the mid-1600s, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman named the islands New 590 Zealand. Over one hundred years later, in 1769, Captain James Cook claimed New Zealand as British colony. Throughout the 1800s, European whalers, traders, sailors, and missionaries settled on the islands. Convicts from Australia came too. By 1840, lawlessness was widespread in New Zealand. The Māori were at 595 risk of losing their land and culture, so they formed an agreement with the British. In the Treaty of Waitangi, the Māori gave the British the right to govern the nation. In exchange, the British guaranteed the Māori full ownership of their native land, forests, and fisheries. Waitangi Day has been public holiday celebrating this agreement since 600 1974. Each year on Waitangi Day, the Māori bring out their ceremonial war canoe (waka) that was built for the 100th anniversary of the signing. It symbolizes how the Māori originally reached the islands. New Zealanders also enjoy traditional Māori food (kai) and dancing (haka). Even though Waitangi Day is not New Zealands Independence Day, many New 605 Zealanders (often called Kiwis) celebrate it as such. They wear New Zealands national colours (black, white, and red) and wave New Zealand and Māori flags. Today, the Māori live mainly on the North Island and represent 15% of New Zealands population. Their language (Te Reo Māori) is an official 610 language in New Zealand. Many people feel that Waitangi Day helps the Māori to preserve their culture. Not everyone agrees February 6 is date worth celebrating, however. Though the Treaty of Waitangi was written in both English and Māori, it wasnt interpreted in the same way by both groups. In fact, the treaty continues to spark debate on each anniversary. 615 Intermediate Nauruz The Persian New Year celebration is called Nauruz (Norooz). When translating from Persian to English, no means new and rooz means day: 620 The New Day. There are many different English spellings for this festival, including Nowruz and Nourooz. Over 300 million people around the world celebrate Nauruz. It is an official holiday in Iran, as well as in other countries such as Turkey and Afghanistan. Like the Lunar New Year celebration, Nauruz celebrates the first day of 625 spring and the renewal of nature. Instead of the Lunar calendar or the Gregorian calendar (Western), Iranians use the Solar Hijri calendar, which begins at the vernal equinox. The vernal equinox is the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere (approximately March 20). The Solar Hijri calendar is also the official calendar in Afghanistan. 630 Nauruz has been celebrated for over 3,000 years. It is sometimes called Zoroastrian New Year because it is closely associated with Zoroastrianism. Zoroaster was an ancient Persian prophet who is often credited as the founder of the worlds first religion. In ancient times, Zoroastrians held ten-day festival at the end of the solar year called Farvardgan. It was 635 festival filled with sorrow in honour of the dead. Over time, Nauruz, an opposing festival celebrating joy, prosperity, and rebirth, took its place. In 2010, the United Nations declared March 21 as International Day of Nowruz. Before the new year, Persians perform many renewal rituals. Most 640 importantly, they clean their homes from top to bottom. They also make or buy new clothes and plant seeds indoors. Before visitors arrive for Nauruz meals and get-togethers, they set ceremonial table called Haft Seen. Each item on the table symbolizes what people hope for in the new year. The last Wednesday before Nauruz is called Red Wednesday 645 (Chaharshanbe Suri). Children dress in sheets and bang pots and pans around their neighbourhoods. They knock on neighbours doors asking for treats, just as Westerners do on Halloween. Bonfires are held, and family members sing songs and jump over the flames, shouting Give me your beautiful, red colour. Red symbolizes healthy skin, while 650 pale skin symbolizes sickness. Everyone makes wish for the new year! After the New Years countdown, families gather around the Nauruz table. They take pictures and enjoy sweets. The celebration continues for the next 13 days. Happy Nauruz! 655 Intermediate Lunar New Year Lunar New Year (also called Chinese New Year and Spring Festival) is the biggest and most important holiday of the year for Chinese people around the world. It is actually two 660 celebrations in one. Lunar New Year is the beginning of the lunar year and the beginning of spring. It is also the most important time of the year for families to get together. Lunar New Year is celebrated in other Asian countries, including Vietnam and Korea. 665 Lunar New Year does not have fixed date on the Western calendar because it is based on the lunar calendar. It always falls between January 20 and February 21. Each year, the Chinese calendar is represented by one of twelve animals from the Chinese zodiac. The signs include animals such as the ox, 670 the rabbit, the snake, and the horse. For example, 1998 was the year of the Tiger. 2010 was also the year of the Tiger. The Chinese believe that people share the characteristics of the animal that represents the year of their birth. All of the animals are associated with different characteristics. Two people who 675 are born in the year of the Rooster are thought to be similar. There are many traditional activities associated with Lunar New Year, and many of these symbolize new life and new beginnings. Many are also related to the idea of good luck. Chinese people sweep and clean their houses before New Years 680 Day and then put away their brooms so good fortune will not be swept away. They always pay off their debts before New Years Day because it is bad luck to begin the new year if you owe money. People also buy new clothing and new shoes because they believe that bad 685 luck will come to those who step on the ground in old shoes on New Years morning. It is also important to settle old arguments. The colour red is seen everywhere on Lunar New Year because it represents fire, which can drive away bad luck, according to 690 legend. Gold is also an important colour at this time. It represents wealth and good fortune. Families decorate their homes with flowers and paper decorations. Exchanging gifts is an important tradition, and children always receive red envelopes containing lucky money. The traditional 695 New Years greeting is Kung Hei Fat Choi, which means wish you prosperous New Year. Food is very important part of the Lunar New Year celebrations. Families and friends get together for large feasts and many of the foods that are eaten have special meanings. 700 Fish is eaten to ensure long life and good fortune. Red dates bring prosperity, lotus and melon seeds will bring many children, and oranges symbolize wealth. Ancestors are remembered with offerings of food. The table is usually covered with red cloth and red candles, and often there are 12 courses 705 to represent the 12 animals of the zodiac. The dragon and the lion are other popular symbols of Lunar New Year. Many Chinese communities around the world celebrate with dragon and lion dances and parades through the streets with people dressed in brightly coloured costumes. Of 710 course, Lunar New Year celebration would not be complete without loud and colourful fireworks. In many Chinese communities, the new year is celebrated as an official holiday for three or four days, but often the celebrations continue until the Festival of Lanterns, which is on the 15th day 715 of Lunar New Year. Pre-Intermediate Holi Holi is Hindu festival. It celebrates the beginning of spring and symbolizes the triumph of good over evil. Another name for Holi 720 is the Festival of Colours. Holi begins on the evening of Purnima (the full moon day) on the Hindu calendar (late February to mid-March). It continues until the evening of the following day. Holi began as an ancient religious festival but is now celebrated by non-religious people 725 in India and around the world. The word Holi comes from an ancient story featuring Holika, the sister of an evil king. King Hiranyakashipu expected everyone to worship him. The kings son, Prahlada, worshipped Lord Vishnu instead. This made the king very angry. He 730 punished his son in many ways, but the boy remained true to Vishnu. One day, Prahladas evil aunt, Holika, tricked the boy into sitting on fire with her. She burned, but her nephew survived. Then Vishnu appeared and killed the king. Holi begins with symbolic bonfire in the evening. People 735 gather around the fire to sing, dance, and rid their bodies of evil thoughts and past deeds. The next day, they go out into the streets and parks to cover each other with brightly coloured powders. Then they have playful water fights with buckets, water guns, and water balloons. People of all ages play like 740 children throughout the day. In the evening, people wash up and enjoy feasts, sweets, and companionship with family and friends. With theme of new beginnings, Holi encourages people to forgive and forget. This includes paying off old debts, renewing 745 broken relationships, and making new friends. Starters Chuseok Chuseok is Korean festival of harvest. It takes place each 750 autumn on the 15th day of the eighth month of the lunar calendar during the full moon. Chuseok is actually three-day festival with celebrations before and after Chuseok Day. Many Asian countries celebrate similar mid-autumn moon festival under other names. 755 Like American and Canadian Thanksgiving, Chuseok centres around family get-togethers and feasts. The traditional food served on Chuseok Day is songpyeon (half-moon rice cakes). These carefully crafted rice balls are filled with seeds, beans, and chestnuts and then shaped into crescents. They are placed 760 on bed of pine needles before being steamed. Well-prepared songpyeon symbolizes good luck. Showing respect to ancestors is also central to Chuseok. Many Korean families use this holiday time to visit and clean up their ancestors graves. They also bring food offerings. Traditional 765 Korean games such as Korean wrestling, tug-of-war, and Neolttwigi (seesaw jumping) are customary during Chuseok. People also enjoy dancing and singing together under the harvest moon. 770 Starters Raksha Bandhan The celebration of Raksha Bandhan, also called Rahki, is special day for brothers and sisters in India. While siblings may argue for much of the year, Rahki is festival of honour and 775 appreciation. Rahki falls on the full moon of the Hindu month of Shraavana. This generally occurs sometime during August or September. On this day, siblings offer each other gifts. The sister places bracelet on her brother in exchange for his protection. She also 780 offers him sweets. Girls who do not have brothers ask other men in their circle of friends or family for protection. Other countries celebrate brothers and sisters at different time of year. Whenever the date may be, siblings reconnect to express their love and support for one another. Holidays like 785 this help reconcile lost or broken relationships in family. Siblings sometimes have falling out in times of illness, death, or divorce. The bond between brother and sister either grows or weakens with age. Brothers and sisters sometimes grow apart due to lack of time. Long distance can also make it 790 difficult to keep up relationship. Regardless of distance, it is common for Indian brothers and sisters to make special effort to be together on Raksha Bandhan. Do you show similar commitment to your own siblings at least once per year? 795 Intermediate Golden Week Many countries offer week of holidays to students as winter ends. In some countries, this is called spring break. In others, it 800 is known as March break or reading week. In Japan, the spring holiday is called Golden Week. Students are not the only ones who get week of holidays at this time. Most of Japan takes break, including the hardworking business workers. Why is this period from April 29–May 5 so special? Four public 805 holidays take place during Golden Week in Japan. Since there are only nine official holidays in the whole year, this is golden opportunity for Japanese workers and students to travel or get together with friends. Most take the days in between off, too. Many companies shut down for the whole week. This is similar 810 to people taking the week off between Christmas and New Years in the Western world. The first holiday in Golden Week is April 29. On this day, Japanese people celebrate the birthday of Hirohito. In Japan, he is known as the Showa Emperor. The late emperor died in 1989. 815 He was the 124th emperor of Japan and he reigned for 65 years during the Showa Period. Though it was once referred to as Greenery Day, April 29 is now known as Showa Day. Showa was an important period for Japan. During this time, rural Japan transformed into highly industrialized nation. 820 The second holiday in Golden Week is Constitution Memorial Day. This holiday takes place on May 3. Many countries have holiday to celebrate constitution. Japans new constitution was established in 1947 after World War II. Article 9 was an important part of this new constitution. It gave the power back 825 to the people. The new constitution also put an end to Japans army. Instead of an army, Japan has self-defence force to defend itself against attacks. Starters 830 Guy Fawkes Night November 5 is Guy Fawkes Night in the UK. Guy Fawkes is well- known figure from British history. He was British conspirator involved in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot. Along with twelve other young Catholic men, Fawkes planned to blow up 835 Parliament and kill James the Protestant king. Unfortunately for Fawkes, the conspiracy was discovered by King James. An anonymous letter warning Catholics of the plot to blow up Parliament was passed on to King James, and search of the basement was ordered. On November 5, Guy 840 Fawkes was caught in the cellar beneath the House of Lords. He was guarding over 36 barrels of gunpowder. Fawkes was questioned, tortured and sentenced to death for his role in the failed assassination attempt. In January of 1606, Fawkes jumped to his death at his public execution. 845 Guy Fawkes Night is sometimes referred to as Bonfire Night. Each year on the anniversary of the failed Gunpowder Plot, the British people light bonfires to celebrate that King Jamess life was spared. Fireworks light up the sky and people burn effigies of Guy Fawkes. 850 Intermediate Bastille Day Bastille Day, as it is called in English-speaking countries, is national holiday in France. It takes place annually on July 14 and marks the 855 anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. In France, the holiday is called Le Quatorze Juillet (The 14th of July) or La Fête Nationale (The National Celebration). The Bastille was built in Paris in 1370 to fortify the Saint-Antoine gate. It helped protect the east side of the city from the English during the 860 Hundred Years War. Many years later, the Bastille became political prison run by the monarchy. In the late 18th century, France was experiencing major financial crisis. The crisis was partly due to Frances involvement in the American Revolution. There were also food shortages caused by series of 865 droughts. Many French citizens were unemployed and hungry. In 1789, King Louis XVI, the ruling monarch, called series of meetings with the Estates General to address the crisis. The Estates General was divided into three social classes: the First Estate (the clergy), the Second Estate (the nobility), and the Third Estate (the commoners). Though the 870 Third Estate represented 95% of the French population, the other two estates had veto power over them. Reform was impossible due to the unfair representation of the people. That summer, the Third Estate decided to revolt and form the National Assembly. The goal of the Assembly was to weaken the power of the 875 monarchy and develop new French constitution for the people. Many representatives of the clergy and the nobility agreed that the monarchy had too much power, and they joined the Assembly. On July 14, citizens entered the streets of Paris and stormed the Bastille. Though there were only seven prisoners inside the medieval fortress, it 880 was historic symbol of the monarchys power. The Bastille was also being used as holding place for gunpowder and weapons, which the revolutionaries needed to form their new National Guard. The storming of the Bastille marked the beginning of the French Revolution and the establishment of the First Republic. 885 In France, Bastille Day is public holiday. People dress in the revolutionary tricolour (blue, white, and red) and fly French flags. Families attend military parades and gather for celebratory picnics and barbecues. Fireworks displays light up the skies in Paris and in other French communities around the world. 890 Intermediate Labour Day The first Monday of September in the US is Labour Day. This is federal holiday observed throughout the US. Even though many schools are 895 already back in session, most Americans think of Labour Day weekend as the unofficial end to summer. It is also the beginning of football season. Labour Day was officially established in 1894 following nationwide strike. The first American labour unions were organized in the late 1800s during the American labour movement. Many of these unions were organized to 900 protect railroad workers and miners. After the establishment of unions, organized strikes became common way for laborers to fight for their rights. In 1894, workers at the Pullman railroad car factory near Chicago, Illinois, were striking against wage reductions and layoffs. Much of the Pullman 905 workforce was represented by the American Railway Union (ARU). In support of the Pullman workers, over 125,000 union railroad workers in the US joined the strike. The Pullman Strike became so disruptive in the Midwest that the government called in the army. The workers did not appreciate the 910 involvement of troops, and 30 people died in the conflict. There was also 80 million dollars in property damage. The strike ended shortly after the ARU was charged with interfering with the US mail. Six days after the strike ended, in an effort to ease relations with workers, President Cleveland declared Labour Day to be an official federal holiday. 915 Traditionally, parades and festivals were held on Labour Day to honour workers and unions. Workers gathered in communities to listen to speeches by union officials and government leaders about labour rights. Today it is more typical of Americans to attend backyard barbecues and fireworks displays on Labour Day weekend. 920 Canada celebrates Labour Day on the same Monday as American Labour Day. Other countries outside of North America celebrate International Workers Rights Day (also called May Day) on May 1. Intermediate 925 Memorial Day The last Monday of May is Memorial Day in the US. Originally, this was day to honour American soldiers who had died in the Civil War. It was unofficially known as Decoration Day because women and school children decorated soldiers graves 930 with flowers and wreaths. In the early to mid-20 th century, Memorial Day was viewed as day to commemorate all lost loved ones, including American servicemen and women who had fallen in World War and II. While Americans continued to lose their lives abroad in the 935 Korean, Vietnam, and Gulf Wars, back at home some civilians began to lose sight of Memorial Day. Rather than national day of remembrance with flags at half-mast, many celebrated it as long weekend full of parties and shopping sprees. In 2000, the US government introduced resolution to re-educate 940 Americans about this observance. The resolution asked Americans to take part in moment of remembrance and respect at 3:00 pm each Memorial Day. Americans are reminded to honour those lost long ago, as well as those who have fallen more recently in places such as Iraq and 945 Afghanistan. Memorial Day ceremonies are held at national cemeteries throughout the US. At Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia, the president traditionally lays wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. This monument honours all of the fallen 950 soldiers whose remains have not been identified. Arlington National was established during the American Civil War due to high number of casualties. On Memorial Day, volunteers and veterans decorate the cemetery with sea of American flags. 955 Intermediate Day of the Dead The Day of the Dead (Dia de Los Muertos) is centuries-old Mexican festival for remembering and honouring lost loved ones. The festival begins on All Hallows Eve (October 31) and 960 ends on All Souls Day (November 2). According to age-old Mexican beliefs, the dead return once year to visit with the living. During the Day of the Dead festival, family members build altars and decorate gravesites for their deceased relatives and 965 friends. On November 1, families honour the children who have passed away. Fruits, nuts, and miniature sugar skulls are placed on altars in homes and cemeteries to attract the young souls for visit. On November 2, the souls of the adults are invited home. Yellow marigolds (the flower of the dead), candles, and 970 favourite foods and beverages are offered to the spirits. In many traditional Mexican families, lot of time and money is spent to ensure that the dead bring hope and prosperity to the family when they visit. The Day of the Dead may sound like morbid holiday, but it is 975 actually joyous occasion. Some families play cards and sing songs in cemeteries, while others dance and share memories. Many spend all night at the cemetery celebrating their ancestors. This helps bring communities together and prevents children from developing fear of death. 980 The Day of the Dead originated in Mexico and spread throughout Latin America. Today it is celebrated in many parts of the world, including Italy, Spain, the Philippines, and parts of the US. As it spreads, it becomes more commercialized. Some Latino Americans fear that Halloween and the Day of the Dead 985 are becoming too closely associated. They worry that the traditions of honoring the dead may soon be lost. In 2008, UNESCO declared the Day of the Dead an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Intangible culture includes anything from music and folklore to ceremonial dances. 990 Intermediate Dragon Boat Festival Can you hear the sound of the drum? Its the annual Dragon Boat Festival. People around the world enjoy dragon boat 995 racing. The sport originated in China over 2,000 years ago. One legend says that the festival honours the life of poet named Qu Yuan. This ancient statesman was living in exile after jealous king banished him from the state of Chu. Qu Yuan wrote poetry while he was away from his beloved homeland. 1000 To protest the corruption in his state, he committed suicide by jumping into the Miluo River. The people who loved him rushed out in fishing boats and beat drums to scare off the fish. They also threw rice in the water. They hoped the fish would eat the rice instead of their beloved poets body. According to Chinese 1005 legend, Qu Yuans spirit appeared and told the people to wrap their rice gifts in silk packages to keep the river dragon away. The festival is held each year on the day of the poets death. In the lunar calendar, this is the fifth day of the fifth moon. Today, the dragon boat festival symbolizes health and the chasing 1010 away of disease and evil spirits. Traditional dragon boat teams had 40–50 paddlers. typical dragon boat today has 20 paddlers, one caller, and one sweep. The caller sits at the bow and plays the drum. The sweep stands at the back and controls the steering. The two people in the front seats are called the 1015 leads. To win the race, the other paddlers must synchronize their strokes with the leads. On the day of the festival, the boats are decorated with dragons face and tail. Intermediate 1020 Independence Day Americans celebrate Independence Day on July 4 all over the world. It is federal holiday, so most Americans dont have to go to work. After having picnics and barbecues throughout the day, Americans light up the night skies with fireworks. On July 4, 1025 Americans demonstrate their patriotism. They are proud of their country and their freedom. Did you know that July 2, 1776, was the true date of Americas independence from Great Britain? This is the day the 13 colonies legally separated. The Declaration of Independence 1030 wasnt finalized until July 4. The document was finalized that day, but was it signed? Many historians say the Declaration of Independence wasnt signed until August 2. Guess what did happen on July 4? John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on that date. They were the second and third presidents, and 1035 both helped draft the constitution. Both presidents died exactly 50 years later in 1826. What did the Declaration of Independence say? It stated that all men had the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It also said that people should be able to choose their own 1040 government. If government becomes abusive, the people should have the right to choose new leader. The document included long list of accusations against the king of England. For example, it accused the king of imposing unfair taxes and of abandoning his people during times of conflict. The document 1045 stated that all ties of allegiance to the British Crown would be cut. Have you heard of the phrase Sign your John Hancock? This phrase means Give me your signature. John Hancocks signature was the largest one on the Declaration of 1050 Independence. His name is now synonymous with the word signature. On Independence Day, people sing The Star-Spangled Banner. The American flag is displayed in homes and businesses in all 50 states. At noon on July 4, military bases 1055 salute each state by firing 50 gunshots. You can remember how many states there are by looking at the US flag. It has 50 stars in the blue rectangle, and 13 alternating red and white stripes. The stripes represent the original colonies. The flag doesnt use just any old shade of red or blue. The official colours on the flag 1060 are Old Glory Red and Old Glory Blue. The term Old Glory is nickname for the flag. On Independence Day, the flag waves high on flagpoles around the country. The flag is displayed at half-mast when the country is in mourning. For example, when soldier or an important American figure dies, 1065 the flag is lowered to half-mast. Another word for half-mast is half-staff. Approximately 2.5 million people lived in the US on July 4, 1776. In 2017, the US population hit 324.5 million. Intermediate 1070 National Indigenous Peoples Day Many people associate June 21 with the first day of summer. In Canada, the summer solstice coincides with National Indigenous Peoples Day. The first day of summer is the longest day of the year. First Peoples in Canada have always celebrated their 1075 heritage on this day. In 1996, Governor General* Romeo Leblanc spoke on behalf of the federal government. He declared Aboriginal Day an official day of recognition: On June 21, this year and every year, Canada will honour the Native Peoples who first brought 1080 humanity to this great land. And may the First Peoples of our past always be full and proud partners in our future. The name of the day was officially changed to National Indigenous Peoples Day on June 21, 2017. There are three different groups of First People in Canada: the 1085 First Nations, the Inuit, and the Métis. These three groups have unique histories, customs, and languages. On June 21, First Peoples showcase ceremonial music and dancing as well as traditional art and clothing. They have deep respect for nature and their Creator. Their rituals reflect their appreciation of the 1090 natural world. National Indigenous Peoples Day is the first day in series of dates called Celebrate Canada. The other days include St. Jean Baptiste Day, Canadian Multiculturalism Day, and Canada Day. More than one million Canadians have some Indigenous 1095 ancestry. Intermediate Kwanzaa Kwanzaa is relatively new holiday, which celebrates African American 1100 people, their culture, and their history. It is seven-day festival that begins on December 26 and lasts until January 1. The holiday of Kwanzaa was created by Dr. Maulana Karenga in 1966 during the civil rights movement in the United States. This was time of great struggle for black Americans. Dr. Karenga wanted to create celebration that would bring 1105 African Americans together by recognizing their black culture. Karenga used the harvest festivals of Africa as model for his new holiday. Over the centuries, Africans have gathered to celebrate their crops and harvests as time of thanksgiving and remembrance. Karenga named his holiday Kwanzaa, which means first fruits (kwanza) in the 1110 African language of Swahili. However, Dr. Karenga added an extra to the spelling so the word would have seven letters. This would correspond with the seven guiding principles or beliefs of the festival. Dr. Karenga based his seven principles of Kwanzaa on the traditional African values and characteristics of the ancient harvest festivals. The seven principles of 1115 Kwanzaa, called the Nguzo Saba, are unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity, and faith. On each evening of the seven-day festival, family member lights candle in special candleholder and discusses one of the seven principles 1120 of Kwanzaa. On the evening of December 31, family and friends get together to enjoy large feast. The last day of Kwanzaa, January 1, is time of gift-giving. The traditional colors of Kwanzaa are black, red, and green, which are the colours of the African flag. Black represents the people, red is their struggle, and green symbolizes hope for the f